Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Advanced Educational Psychology

Information-Processing and Cognitive Learning Theories
Home | Study Guide Exam 1 | Study Guide Exam 2 | Announcements | Instructor Info | Class Syllabus | Schedule Fall 2007 | APA Links | Humor | Introduction to Educational Psychology Lecture Notes | Theories of Development Lecture Notes | Intelligence Lecture Notes | Exceptional Learners Lecture Notes | Multicultural Education Lecture Notes | Social Constructivism | Motivation | Behavioral Learning Theories and Social Learning Theory | Information-Processing and Cognitive Learning Theories | Assessing Student Learning | Standardized Testing | Planning, Instruction, Design | GRADES

Information-Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning And Memory

 

Information-Processing Model

lTheory that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge

lInfo is processes and stored in 3 stages:

 

Sensory Register/Memory

lEverything first come through SM

lInfo not attended to and processed:

lInfo attended to:      

 

Sensory Registry/Memory:  Educational Implications

lStudents MUST pay attention to info to ever retain it

ltakes time to bring info into consciousness

 

lHow will you gain and keep students’ attention?

 

Short Term/Working Memory

lActive or working memory

lInfo not processed: lost forever

lInfo processed: moves on to LTM

 

How much info can be held in ST/Working-Memory?

 

Chunking

lRecodes/reorganizes info into units that are already into LTM

 

How long does STM last?

lInfo disappears quickly

lCan prolong a memory by repeating it - Maintenance rehearsal

lElaborative rehearsal is more effective

 

How can teachers help students keep info in Working Memory?

lAllow time to practice, rehearsal

lTeach them how to organize/chunk info

lPresent info in logical, organized fashion

lConnect new info to info already in students long-term memory

 

LTM – Long-term Memory

lCapacity: unlimited

lPermanence: relatively permanent

 

3 parts of LTM

lEpisodic memory: Personal experiences

lSemantic memory: Facts and general knowledge

lProcedural memory: Info about how to do things

 

Enhancing LTM

lMake it personal, relate it

lPresent info visually and verbally

lActive hands-on learning

lAllow for deep processing of info

lDistributed practice > mass practice

 

What causes people to forget? 

lInterference: Unable to recall info due to presence of other information

Proactive – old info interferes w/ new info

Retroactive – new info interferes w/ old info

 

Facilitation

lFacilitation

Proactive – old info can help student learn new info

Retroactive – new info can help student better learn old info

 

Retrieval

lRecall: remembering in absence of the item

lFactors affecting Recall

Serial position - Primacy and Recency

Environmental Context

State-dependency - Drugs, mood     

Stress

 

Levels of Processing

lShallow

lDeep

lDeepest

 

Improving Memory

lRehearsal      Selection          Organize/Chunk            Overlearn         Spaced Studying           Sleep and Eat   Mnemonic Devices

 

Tips for Teachers

lCapture, Hold and Improve Attention

lMinimize distractions, use cues

lRelate tasks to real life, play games, use technology

lEncourage Effective Rehearsal

lStress Meaningfulness

lActive learning

lConnect info to what they already know

 

 

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter supporting content here