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Advanced Educational Psychology

Motivation
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Chapter 10: Motivation

 

Motivation

nCritical component of learning

 

nIs motivation intrinsic or extrinsic?

nWhat makes a student want to learn?

nHow do teacher motivate students?

 

Motivation

nInternal process that activates, guides, maintains behavior over time

nReasons why we do what we do

nCan vary in direction and intensity

nPlays a role in cognitive processes

 

Theories of Motivation

nBehavioral Approach

nHumanistic Approach

nCognitive Approach

 

Behavioral Perspective

nMotivation dependent on Rewards and Punishment

nI will do _____ to obtain reinforcer

nI will do _____ to avoid punishment

 

nExamples of Incentives

nIncentives – Effective? Good? Bad? Universal? 

 

Humanistic Perspective

nMotivated to satisfy needs

nMaslow’s hierarchy of needs

nSelf-actualization

nDesire to reach one’s full potential

 

Physiological: food, water, oxygen, warmth, exercise, rest

 

Safety: Need to feel safe and secure in the environment

 

Love and Belonging: Need to feel accepted as part of a group

 

Esteem: feel good about self; believe others feel good about them

 

Self-Actualization: Need to grow & become all capable of

 

Cognitive Perspective

nThoughts guide motivation

nFocus on student’s:

nAttribution to success and failure

nBeliefs about being able to control environment

 

Case of Theresa

 

Attribution Theory

nseeks to understand just such explanations and excuses, particularly when applied to success or failure

nExplanations have 3 characteristics

nIs cause internal or external?

nIs it stable or unstable?

nIs it controllable or uncontrollable?

nAssumption: students will attempt to maintain a positive self-image

 

Attributions for Success? Failure?

n4 explanations for success and failure

Examples

nI failed because I am stupid

nIs this internal or external? Stable or unstable?

nI got lucky

nInternal or external? Stable or unstable?

nWhat happens to student who fails once?

nWhat if student fails over and over?

nSelf-fulfilling prophecy

 

Locus of Control/Self-efficacy

nExplanations have 3 characteristics

nIs cause internal or external?

nIs it stable or unstable?

nIs it controllable or uncontrollable?

n“Does my behavior make a difference?”

 

nJohnny believes that no matter what he does, Mr. Smith will flunk him. What will Johnny’s work ethic and motivational level look like?

nLearned helplessness

 

nJimmy believes that he has the ability and intelligence to be successful in his Math course. What will Jimmy’s work ethic and motivational level look like?

 

nShould teachers emphasize effort or ability?

 

nShould teachers emphasize grades, rankings? Why or why not?

 

Motivation and Expectancy Theory

nStudents expectations play a role in the learning process, motivation, work ethic, etc.

nHow do teacher expectations play a role?

nHow can teachers communicate positive expectations?

 

How can teachers increase students’ motivation to learn?

 

Tips for Motivating Students

 

Activity

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